On March 26, 2009 the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan had ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Kazakhstan is a Party to Annex 1 for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol.
At the international level in Kazakhstan made four important decisions:
- 1. Marrakesh Decision which defines us as a country for the purposes of Annex 1 to the Kyoto Protocol;
- 2. Nairobi solution defines a base year 1992 for Kazakhstan ;
- 3. Poznan solution, where Kazakhstan undertakes voluntary commitments not to exceed the quantity of emissions in 1992 at the crediting period 2008-2012;
- 4. Cancun solution - an official document to include in the provisional agenda of the next session of the Conference in Durban (South Africa) to consider a proposal by Kazakhstan on including it in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol.
Becoming one of the Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol will allow us to create a system that will generate a national quota of Kazakhstan, and in the future in many ways will help to be prepared for the post-Kyoto regime. Kazakhstan has to be completely focused on creating a low carbon economy, following the example of Norway and Denmark. Implementation of programs on energy efficiency and promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources will enable Kazakhstan to actively and dynamically develop and secure its supply of "tax climate", which is already introduced in European countries and the United States.
At the moment the maximum objective - to provide support in the discussion at the COP issue for Kazakhstan, and to make it so that the parties' decision was feasible, but did not go on, "the Belarusian scenario" *.
"Belarusian scenario" - a decision of the Conference of Parties: the inclusion of Belarus to Annex B must be approved by 75% of the Parties of the Kyoto Protocol, such approval will be expressed in the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the Parliament, ie countries need to re-ratify the Kyoto Protocol, but with the name of Belarus.
LEGISLATION AND INTERNAL ACTIONS TO SUPPORT THE ACTIONS AGAINST GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
- On July 5, 2009 the President of Kazakhstan signed a law on support for renewable energy sources (RES). The Act removes a number of organizational and financial barriers that stood in the way of implementation of RES in Kazakhstan. The law will help renewables compete with conventional energy sources, reduce losses in regional networks and reduce the costs of projects.
- A draft law on energy efficiency and energy conservation is developing, which should encourage energy-efficient technologies; will create opportunities for energy efficiency in businesses and residential sectors, increase production efficiency and ultimately will make Kazakhstan's economy more efficient and close to the environmental standards of the leading countries in the world.
- By the Republic of Kazakhstan Law "On Oil" gas flaring is prohibited. This should be achieved by creating a program to phase out burning on fields and utilization of associated gas to produce heat and electricity. It should be noted that the not all oil companies in Kazakhstan can refuse partial combustion, but utilization projects began to increase, thus reducing the energy shortage in the region and, ultimately, improve the welfare of the inhabitants of the western region of Kazakhstan.
- In the implementation of Kazakhstan's commitments arising from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, ratified by the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on May 4, 1995, in 2006-2008 national plans and programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions were developed:
- "Action Plan for the development of power industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2007-2015" approved by decree of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan from May 31, 2007 № 147-p.
- "The Concept of Transition of Kazakhstan to Sustainable Development 2006 - 2024", Astana, 2006
- The concept of the project of state program "Energy Efficiency and Renewable Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan to sustainable development until 2024"
- "The list of energy facilities, subject to reconstruction, modernization and expansion, as well as building new power plants in 2007-2015", approved by Order of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of June 26, 2007 № 153, etc.
INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KAZAKHSTAN TO ADDRESS GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
By having an aware of the need to confront the coming climate crisis, Kazakhstan at the international level, acts as an active participant in international conventions, agreements and projects.
For Kazakhstan, with its sharply continental climate Global climate change promises a lot of problems. Scientists expect the likely strain on water provision and use of trans boundary watercourses. Shrinking glaciers will lead to a change in water regime, especially in the south of Kazakhstan. Possible reduction of pasture and arable land, migration, both within Kazakhstan and the possible forced acceptance "climate refugees" from the southern countries. Highly probable worsening of medical problems as the emergence and expansion of areas of infectious and viral diseases, a real threat and the emergence of new diseases that can move with climatic zones. In addition, global climate change will have impacts on the economic interests of the state as an exporter of energy and raw materials.
By considering these dangers, Kazakhstan has been working closely with international organizations and countries and partners in order to prevent a climate catastrophe, and to adapt to climate change. The most actively at this time in our country are working with the UN Development Program, United Nations Environment Program, multilateral development banks (ADB, EBRD, WB).
Today, global warming from the invisible threat of the distant future becomes a real sword of Damocles. Changing the temperature values, the shift of seasons, and the increase in extreme weather events - such consequences of climate change we are facing right now. According to the Second National Communication (report) of Kazakhstan on Climate Change, for the period 1936-2005 climate of Kazakhstan became much warmer. Every 10 years the average annual temperature in the country grew on average by 0.31 C. According to the elaborated scenarios of climate change, at such rates as early as 2085 moistening zone can be significantly shifted to the north. Water scarcity, global warming could lead to the degradation of pastures and strike on the cultivation of crops, including spring wheat - one of the most important export commodities of the country. Under the threat will be food and energy balance of the country, due to the inability to use all the capacity hydroelectric power plants, harm will be done to all ecosystems of the country.
Along with measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the adequate human response is an adaptation to changing natural and climatic conditions. National Program for adaptation to climate change must include an objective assessment of possible risks to different sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan and include a system of effective adaptation measures, designed to meet these risks. A complex of adaptive measures could include the introduction of new irrigation systems or transition to growing new crops, and developing effective and efficient plans with other countries in natural resources. The Adaptation program to a large extent must take into account the priority sectors to assess vulnerabilities and develop appropriate adaptation measures in the short, medium and long term.
Kazakhstan had ratified Kyoto Protocol in March 2009 and became a full member of the worldwide movement to prevent global climate change. The country is faced with the need as soon as possible to translate the key sectors of the economy in "green track" to meet all obligations assumed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Kazakhstan has chosen the path of forced industrial-innovative development, now is the time to implement adaptation measures into national policies and programs. Otherwise, all the key projects in the long run will be ineffective and unsustainable before the main challenge of the time.